Becoming a citizen of Australia is the final legal step in your migration story. It is a process in which a non-Australian citizen voluntarily becomes an Australian citizen. Australian citizens pledge their loyalty to Australia and its people and are then entitled to its protection and to exercise their rights and responsibilities as citizens.
As a permanent resident of Australia, you generally can:
stay in Australia indefinitely
work and study in Australia
enroll in Australia’s national health scheme, Medicare
apply for bank loans to buy property
sponsor eligible relatives for permanent residence
apply for Australian citizenship, if eligible
travel to and from Australia as many times as you want until your travel validity expires
have consular protection
You may also qualify for other government benefits and services. If you hold a permanent resident visa, but you are not residing in Australia, your eligibility for the above may be impacted. Contact the relevant authorities to confirm your rights and obligations.
Unlike Australian citizens, you generally can’t:
have an Australian passport
vote in Australian Government elections unless you enrolled (as a British subject) before 26 January 1984
access student loans
join the Australian Defence Force
obtain ongoing work in the Australian Government
return to Australia from overseas unless your permanent residence visa’s travel validity has not expired (you do not have the automatic right of entry to Australia)
When you become an Australian citizen, you will have new responsibilities in your new country. You will also be eligible for a range of new benefits expressly for Australian Citizens.
Your Responsibilities – what you will give to Australia
As an Australian citizen, you must:
Obey the law
Defend Australia should the need arise
Serve on a jury if called to do so
Vote in federal, state or territory elections, and referendums
Your Privileges – what Australia will give to you
As an Australian citizen, you have the right to:
Vote in federal, state or territory elections, and in a referendum
Apply for work in the Australian Public Service and the Australian Defence Force
Seek election to Parliament
Apply for an Australian passport and re-enter Australia freely
Receive help from an Australian embassy while overseas
Register children born overseas as Australian citizens by descent
Acquisition of Australian Citizenship
Automatic Acquisition of Australian Citizenship
Citizenship by Birth
Generally, you become an Australian citizen automatically if you are born in Australia AND one or both of your parents are Australian citizens or permanent residents when you are born.
Acquisition of Australian Citizenship by Application
Citizenship by Descent
You may be eligible to become an Australian citizen under this Subdivision in 2 situations:
you were born outside Australia on or after 26 January 1949 and a parent of yours was an Australian citizen at the time of your birth: see subsection 16(2); or
you were born outside Australia or New Guinea before 26 January 1949 and a parent of yours was an Australian citizen on 26 January 1949: see subsection 16(3).
Citizenship by Conferral
You may be eligible for Australian citizenship by conferral if you are a permanent resident in one of the following seven situations:
Satisfy general, special or defence residence requirements and have successfully completed a citizenship test
Satisfy general, special or defence residence requirements and have a permanent or enduring physical or mental incapacity
Satisfy general, special or defence residence requirements and are aged 60 or over or have a hearing, speech or sight impairment
Are aged under 18
Are born outside Australia to a former Australian citizen
Were born in Papua before Papua New Guinea gained independence,16 September 1975, to a parent born in Australia and an Australian citizen at the time of birth
Are a stateless person
There are situations where a former Australian citizen wishes to apply again for citizenship, they may be eligible to become an Australian citizen if they ceased to be a Citizen either under the current Act or the old Citizenship Act 1948. The individual must make a new application to become a citizen again.
Acquisition of Australian Citizenship by New Zealanders
For New Zealand citizens living in Australia to become an Australian citizen, you need to answer the following questions:
Have you arrived in Australia after 26 February 2001 & before 19 February 2016? If yes, you must first become a permanent resident then you can apply for citizenship.
Have you arrived in Australia after 19 February 2016? If yes, you will have to go through other visa options as any other applicant.
Australian Citizenship Steps
Completing and lodging an application form
Citizenship appointment or test
Once you have lodged an application and it has been received, they will be invited to attend a citizenship appointment.
The result of the test is provided on the day. The processing times for citizenship applications vary. Generally speaking, the Department aims to process applications
within 6 months of lodgment.
Attend a citizenship ceremony
Once their application has been approved they will be able to attend a citizenship ceremony.
Appeals of Australian Citizenship Applications
If your citizenship application is refused you have the right to ask for the decision to be reviewed by the Administrative Appeals Tribunal. Your letter of notification will advise you where you can lodge your application for review and the time limits for applying. Should you need advice for an Administrative Appeals Tribunal hearing (Highly Advised) Migration Downunder can help you to prepare a submission for review.
It was tough at the beginning studying, working and keeping my wife happy! I worked as a car wash attendant, kitchen hand as a farm hand picking strawberries (I can no longer eat strawberries), working in a laundry until finally in 2012 I found a job working in my trade as a Cook for a catering business in Emerald Regional Area.
Would you like to know more about your prospects for a visa?
You don’t need to wade through an internet full of conflicting information that is at best general and at worst wrong. One call or email to us will often be enough for us to put you on the right path.